MAINS Answer Writing 14 July

What is clone and methods to create it? (5 Marker)

  • Cloning is a technique scientists use to make exact genetic copies of living things.
  • Genes, cells, tissues, and even whole animals can all be cloned.
  • Some clones already exist in nature. Single-celled organisms like bacteria make exact copies of themselves each time they reproduce.
  • When a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination.
  • Prokaryotic organisms (organisms lacking a cell nucleus) such as bacteria create genetically
    identical duplicates of themselves using binary fission or budding.
  • Eukaryotic organisms (organisms possessing a cell nucleus) such as humans, all the cells that undergo mitosis, such as skin cells and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract, are clones.
  • Researchers have cloned a wide range of biological materials, including genes, cells, tissues and entire
    organisms, such as a sheep, cow, etc.


Digital India Initiative (3 Marker)

Digital India is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.

Starting Year: 2015

Launched by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (Meity).

Its three main areas:

  • Infrastructure as a facility for every citizen
  • Governance and demand-based services
  • Digital empowerment of citizens

Distinguish between Website and Portal (5 Marker)

Both the website and the portal have a web-based interface

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