MAINS Answer Writing 13 July

What is TRIPS and its areas of IPRs legislation ? (5 Marker)

The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is the most
comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property (IP).
It sets down minimum standards for the regulation by national governments of many forms of intellectual
property (IP) as applied to nationals of other WTO member nations.


TRIPs covers the following areas for IPRs legislation including

  1. copyright and related rights (i.e. the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations);
  2. trademarks including service marks;
  3. geographical indications including appellations of origin;
  4. industrial designs;
  5. patents including the protection of new varieties of plants;
  6. the layout-designs of integrated circuits; and
  7. undisclosed information including trade secrets and test data.

Define Robot and its generations? (5 Marker)

The word ‘Robot’ coined by Karel (Joseph) Capek.
The word Robot means self – labour (Earlier Forced Labour).
A Robot is a machine capable of carrying out complex series of actions automatically and replaces human
effort, though it may or may not resemble human being in appearance or exhibit human like behaviour.
The decision making power of a robot is what makes it different from normal devices.

Currently robot manufacturing has gone through three generations:-

  1. 1st generation, only industrial work
  2. 2nd generation, the use of cameras and sensors were used in exploration
  3. 3rd generation, Artificial Intelligence and mental Analysis

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