Evaluate the Development in the field of Art, Architecture and Literature during Delhi Sultanate.
- The Delhi Sultanate includes the following dynasties – (Slave, Khilji, Tughlaq, and Lodhi) and their contribution to art literature give Historical mark on Indian History.
New Type of Hindu-Muslim Architecture
- The era marked the evolution and development of a new type of Hindu-Muslim architecture in which the decorative exuberance of Hindu architecture in which decorative exuberance of Hindu architecture was toned down.
Art and Architecture
The art and architecture of the Delhi Sultanate period were distinct from the Indian style.
- The Turks introduced arches, domes, lofty towers or minarets, and decorations using Arabic-Script. They used the skill of the Indian stove cutters.
- Qutub-Minar in Delhi was built by Aibak and was completed by Iltutmish was magnificent example of their Architecture.
- The Building of the Tughlaq period was constructed by combining an arch and a dome.
- The palace complex called Tughlaqabad was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
- Md. Bin Tughlaq built the Tomb of Ghiyasuddin on a high Platfrom.
- Patronized learning and literature.
- The most famous historians of this period were Hassan Nizami, Minhaj-us-Siraj, Ziauddin Baruni, and Shams-Siraj.
- Amir Khusrau was a famous Persian writer of this period.
- Sanskrit and Persian Functioned as link Delhi Sultanate.
Why Bhakti and Sufi Movements are referred as silent revolution in society?
The medieval period has witnessed a new phase of cultural development and Sufi Movements, which gave birth to different cultures, practices, philosophical and religious traditions, and ideas.
The real development of the Bhakti Movement took places in south India between the 7th– 12th century through the teaching of poet-saints known as Alvars and Nayanar.
- The Sufi Saints of the Muslim also emphasized devotion to Allah (God).
- The Spritual yearning made Kabir, Gurunanak, Mirabai, Surdas, Tulsidas, Chaitanya, and others, the great exponents of the Bhakti Movement.
Main Features of Movement
- Unity of God, Self-surrender, Open-Mindedness about deciding religious matters.
- Emphasized on the fundamental unity of all religions and no distinction of different castes, higher or low etc.
Some positive impacts of Bhakti
- Followers of the Bhakti Movement rejected the caste distinction.
- Follow the path of equality, the spirit of harmony, and encouraged religious toleration.
- The Evil practice of “Sati” Received some setbacks and status of women received more importance.
Some Negative Impacts of Bhakti
- Rise to a new form of superstitious in Indian Society: Tantra.
- Divided the Hindu Society.
- Developments of Tantra Schools etc.
The Bhakti Saints taught universal toleration and brought about a revolution in the social structure. But their disciples failed to rise the movement. It was not the mass movement and failed to attain cultural unity and was referred as silent revolution.
Write a Short note of initial days of English in India and Explain why the English succeeded against other European Powers.
The English association or company to trade with the East was formed in 1599 CE under the Auspices of a group of merchant known as “The Merchant Adventures”.
The Company was given a royal charter and the exclusive privilege to trade in the East by Queen Elizabeth on Dec. 1600 CE and was popularly known as the East-India Company.
- In 1619 CE, Captain William Hawkins arrived at the court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir to seek permission to English trading center at Surat.
- By 1619 CE, The English established their factories at Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda, and Bharuch.
- The Engine opened their factory in the south at “Masulipatnam”.
- The British East India Company grew in power and tended to acquire the Status of a sovereign state in India.
Reasons for the British Success to establish their supremacy in India.
1. Carnatic Wars and British :
- The Portuguese and the Dutch were not serious competitors to the English. The Only real rival of the English was the French.
- But the Objective of the Bruisers is to establish a monopoly of trade and commerce in India, which brought them into conflict with the French. Subsequent war and British Conquest were the first steps towards establishing their supremacy.
2. Vacuum of Power
- After the Mughals, there was a vacuum of power in India.
3. Quality of leadership and Strong financial backup.
4. Lack of National Pride and Unity among Indians.
5. Superior Arms and Military strategy etc.
Write a Short note on Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Government of India Act. 1919.
- The Government of India Act 1919 was an act of the British Parliament that sought to increase the participation of Indians in the administration of their county.
- The act was based on two recommendations of a report by Edwin Montagu, The then secretary of State for India and Lord Chelmsford, India’s Viceroy between 1916-1921.
- Hence the Constitutional reforms set forth by this act are known as the Montague-Chelmsford reforms.
Principle Features are:
- Diarchy was introduced i.e. there were two classes of administrators- Executive Councilor and Ministers.
- The Governor was the Executive head of the Province.
- The Subjects were divided into two lists- Reserved and transferred.
- A Bicameral legislature was set up with two houses- The Legislative Assembly (Forerunner of Loksabha) and the Council of State (Forerunner of Rajyasabha).
- This act provided for the first time, the establishment of a public service commission (1926).
- The act also provided that after 10 years a statutory commission would be set up to study the working of the government. This resulted in the formation of the “Simon Commission” in 1927.
- It also created an office of the High Commissioned for Indian in London etc.
Outcomes of the Act.
- The Montford Reforms/Mountague Reforms were termed “Unworthy and disappointing a Sunless dawn”.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant found the reforms “Unworthy of England to offer and India to accept”.