Discuss the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.
Four Noble Truths in Buddhism :
- Suffering (Dukkha) is the essence of the world.
- Every suffering has a cause Samedya.
- Suffering could be extinguished Nirodha.
- It can be achieved by the following Ashthangika Marga.
Eight Fold Path
The path consists of various interconnected activities related to knowledge, conduct, and meditative practice. (Right-View, Intuition, speech, action, livelihood, mindfulness, effort and concentration.)
Write short note on Chalukyas.
The chalukyas ruled southern and central parts of the India between the 6th-12th Century.
There is three distinct but related chalukya dynasty.
- “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th Century.
- After the death of Pulkeshin-II, the Eastern Chalukya became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan.
- They ruled form Vengi until about the 11th Century.
- Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (Modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th Century.
The ruler of the chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of south India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.
Evaluate the achievements of Chedi’s of Tripuri.
- Kokkal-I was the founder of the Kalchuri Dynasty who ruled the Chedi region which was situated from Narmada to Godavari River.
- Yuvraja, was a powerful ruler who defected the Rahstrakuta Army.
- In the Kalchuri inscription, his successful raids against Kashmir and the Himalayan region are mentioned.
- During the Gangeya Deva the Chedis emerged as one of the greatest political powers in India.
Summarize Mahatma Gandhi’s Experience in South Africa.
- Mahatma Gandhi spent 21-years in South-Africa.
- He witnessed the white racism and the humiliation and contempt to which Asians, who had gone had gone to South Africa as laborers were subjected.
- Gandhi’s faith in the capacity of the masses to fight was established through his experience in South Africa.
- He was able to evolve his style leadership and politics and techniques of the struggle for mass-based from moderate-based struggles.