MAINS Answer Writing 8 July

05 Markers

Discuss the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.


Four Noble Truths in Buddhism :

  1. Suffering (Dukkha) is the essence of the world.
  2. Every suffering has a cause Samedya.
  3. Suffering could be extinguished Nirodha.
  4. It can be achieved by the following Ashthangika Marga.

Eight Fold Path

The path consists of various interconnected activities related to knowledge, conduct, and meditative practice. (Right-View, Intuition, speech, action, livelihood, mindfulness, effort and concentration.)

Write short note on Chalukyas.


The chalukyas ruled southern and central parts of the India between the 6th-12th Century.

There is three distinct but related chalukya dynasty.

  • “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th Century.
  • After the death of Pulkeshin-II, the Eastern Chalukya became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan.
  • They ruled form Vengi until about the 11th Century.
  • Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (Modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th Century.

The ruler of the chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of south India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.

Evaluate the achievements of Chedi’s of Tripuri.


  • Kokkal-I was the founder of the Kalchuri Dynasty who ruled the Chedi region which was situated from  Narmada to Godavari River.

Major Achievements.

  • Yuvraja, was a powerful ruler who defected the Rahstrakuta Army.
  • In the Kalchuri inscription, his successful raids against Kashmir and the Himalayan region are mentioned.
  • During the Gangeya Deva the Chedis emerged as one of the greatest political powers in India.

Summarize Mahatma Gandhi’s Experience in South Africa.


  • Mahatma Gandhi spent 21-years in South-Africa.
  • He witnessed the white racism and the humiliation and contempt to which Asians, who had gone had gone to South Africa as laborers were subjected.
  • Gandhi’s faith in the capacity of the masses to fight was established through his experience in South Africa.
  • He was able to evolve his style leadership and politics and techniques of the struggle for mass-based from moderate-based struggles.

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